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Jumat, 26 Desember 2008

SKRIPSI A ACENG JAENAL (CONTOH)

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Problem

English is the first foreign language in our country, which is taught from Elementary level to University level. English is also intensively used in international communication, in written as well as in spoken communication. In addition, many books of science, technology, art and other published issues are written in English.

In English language, there are integrated skills to be mastered such as: Speaking, listening, reading, and Writing. As Haycraft states (1978:8) that there are various skills in mastering of language: respective skill, listening (understanding the spoken language), reading (understanding the written language), and productive skills-speaking and writing.

The researcher chooses student’s composing narrative writing as a material of narrative writing. By assumption that the composition is the result of students’ product that can be known clearly. Sofyan (1999:86) stated that Narrative is a story which is connected with events based on the plot. Then why the teachers use narrative text, it is because the narrative as a story of human experience, so that the students arrange easily the composition. As Keraf (1991:136) states that “Narrative as a story tells or describe an action in the past time clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?”. Narrative as a story, so it is should have the element that can make story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.

The students must have good communication in both oral and written form. Oral form is that speaking and listening, and written form is that writing in reading. The students have difficulties in composing narrative writing. Some of them feel difficulties in composing narrative writing such as: stuck to get diction, getting idea, and ordering the words.

Based on the problem above, the students must know some strategies in composing narrative writing such as: making outline, using picture, using dictionary, sharing with friends, using the tools (audio, audio-visual) or learning’s aids( a guide),. As Brown (2000:113) stated that strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information. Because of that the students should choose a good strategy to compose narrative writing. As Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) says learning strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and contains information.

From the above explanation, we can infer that each student has certain tendency and capability in using certain learning strategies, therefore the use of various learning strategies influenced by their family background, experience, and character. In order words, strategy that is useful to student might not be useful to others. Since students have their own strategy characteristic, they will have different learning strategies that are useful and comfortable for them.

From the above explanation, the researcher will discuss about “the students’ strategies in composing narrative writing” which is conducted at the second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang.

1.2 The Identification of Problem

Based on the background above, the research identifies the problem as follow:

1 The students get difficulties in composing narrative writing.

2 Inappropriate learning strategies and teaching techniques.

3 There are many kind of strategies which have done.

1.3 The Limitation of Problem

In this research the researcher limits only on strategy in composing narrative writing done by students at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang.

1.4 The Formulation of Problem

Dealing with limitation of the problem, the researcher would like to formulate the problem as follow:

1) What strategies are used by the students in writing narrative at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?

2) What are the students’ reasons in choosing strategies at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?

3) How do the students’ compose narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa?

1.5 The Objectives of the research

The objectives of the research could be formulated as follow:

1) To find out strategies used by the students at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

2) To know the students reasons in choosing a strategy at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

3) To know the students ability in composing narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

1.6 The Uses of the Research

1.6.1 Theoretically:

1. As the references for other researchers who are interested in investigating the teaching writing ability by using composing narrative writing to students’ composing narrative writing.

2. As the support for the theory which states that composing narrative writing.

1.6.2 Practically:

1 As the answer of the writer’s curiosity on the teaching by using composing narrative writing to the students’ and the English teachers.

2 As the information for all the teachers and the students to use strategies in composing narrative writing.

1.7 Clarification of terms

1.7.1 Writing Strategies

According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate, focused ways of thinking about writing.

Based on definition above, writing strategies are some of technique it can be a formal plan to write a book report, or it can be something as simple as a trick to remember how a word is spelled.

1.7.2 Strategy

According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information.

Then strategy is as a remedy the teacher in making system area that happened to process teaching learning. (Ahmadi:2005: 32).

According to Chamot (1987) strategies are often more powerful when they are used in appropriate combinations.

Based on those definitions above, strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more effectively and more autonomously.

1.7.3 Learning Strategies

According to Chamot (1987) learning strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and content information. (Cited from Masdari, 2005:5)

Then learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information. (Richards. 1992:209)

Based on definition above, learning strategies are technique approaches, intention behavior used by learner during learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information.

1.7.4 Narrative writing

As Semi in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is conversation or writing with the purpose tells about action or human experience based on the development of time.

Then according to Keraf (1991:136) states that “Narrative as a story tells or describes an action in the past time clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what had happened?” Narrative as a story, so it is should have the element that makes the story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.

Referring on the definitions above we conduct that narrative is a story telling about the event consist of conflict and conclusion.

1.8 Organization of the paper

Chapter one discusses about introduction that consists of background of problem, identification of problem, limitation and formulation of problem, objective of the research, uses of the research, clarification of terms and organization of paper

Chapter two discusses about frame of theories that consist of the definition of strategy, the kinds of strategies, definition of learning strategies, the categories of learning strategies, definition of narrative, the characteristic of narrative, the kinds of narrative, the different between narrative and recount, definition writing strategies, plan for writing.

Chapter three discusses about methodology that consist of research design, place of the research, data collecting technique, data analysis technique and analysis of the instrument.

Chapter four discusses about research result and discussion of the findings.

Chapter five discusses about conclusions and suggestion.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE OF THEORIES

2.1 Definition of Strategy

Everybody has strategy in learning everything. It is conscious or unconsciously. It is natural for learners to use strategy in learning process, because learning is not an instantaneous process for every learner, it is one of their development process. Sometimes strategy can help the students, so the teacher helps the learner. As Ahmadi (2005:14) states that strategy is as a remedy for the teacher in making system area that happened to process of teaching learning.

According to Brown (2000:113) Strategies are specific methods of approaching a problem or task, modes of operation for achieving a particular end, planned designs for controlling and manipulating certain information. Moreover, Mintzberg (1991: 5) says that strategy is the pattern or plan that integrates an organization’s major goals, policies, and action sequences into a cohesive whole.

Then, Chamot (1999:32) stated that strategies are often more powerful when they are used in appropriate combinations. Based on the statement above strategies are any tools or tactics that learners employ to learn more effectively and more autonomously.

2.2 The Kinds of Strategy

There are kinds of strategies. As Brown (2000:122) states that the strategies divide in to two are

2.2.1 Learning Strategies

Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) stated Learning strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recalls of both linguistic and content are information.

Strategies were divided into three main categories, are:

a) Metacognitive strategies

Metacognitive strategies is a term used in information-processing theory to indicate an “executive” function, strategies that involve planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed.

b) Cognitive strategies

Cognitive Strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.

c) Socioaffective strategies

Socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating activity and interacting with others.

Referring to the explanation above there are many categories of learning strategies are metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies, and socioaffective strategies.

2.2.2 Communication Strategies

Faerch and Kasper in Brown (2000:127) defined communication strategies as “potentially conscious plans for solving what to an individual presents itself as a problem in reaching a particular communication goal”.

There are several categories in communication strategies. According to Brown (2000:127), such as:

a. Avoidance Strategies

Avoidance strategies are a common communication strategy that can be broken down into several subcategories.

The types of avoidance strategies are:

1) Message abandonment: leaving a message unfinished because of language difficulties.

2) Topic avoidance: avoiding topic areas or concepts that pose language difficulties.

b. Compensatory Strategies

Common compensatory strategies are a direct appeal for help. Learners may, if stuck for a particular word or phrase, directly ask a native speaker or the for the form.

The types of compensatory strategies are:

1) Circumlocution: describing or exemplifying the target object of action.

2) Approximation; using an alternative term which expresses the meaning of the target lexical item as closely as possible.

3) Use of all-purpose words: extending a general, empty lexical item to contexts where specific words are lacking.

4) Word coinage: creating a none existing.

5) Prefabricated patterns: using memorized stock phrases, usually for “survival’ purpose.

6) Nonlinguistic signal: mime, gesture, facial expression, or sound imitation.

7) Literal translations: translating literally a lexical item, idiom, compound word, or structure from L1 to L2

8) Foreign zing: using a L1 word by adjusting it to L2 phonology

9) Code-switching: using a L1 word will, Li pronunciation or a L3 word with L3 pronunciation while speaking in L2.

10) Appeal for help; asking for aid from the interlocutor either directly.

11) Stalling or time-gaining strategies: using files or hesitation devices to fill and to gain time to think.

2.3 Definition of learning Strategy

According to Chamot in Masdari (2005:5) state that Learning strategies are techniques approaches, or deliberate the learning and recall of both linguistic and contains information. Then Richards (1992:209) says that learning strategies are intention behavior and thoughts used by learners during learning, so as to better help them understand learn or remember new information.

From the statement above we can infer that in order to be a successful language learner student should be able to decide which learning strategies that one suitable for them. Thus, they can optimize and enjoy they learning by using learning strategies, students can facilitate their quality of learning respond to their learning needs and acquire knowledge better than those who do not know and use learning strategies.

2.4. The Categories of learning strategies

There are several categories. According to Brown (2000: 124), categories of learning strategies are:

2.4.1 Metacognitive strategies

Metacognitive is a term used in information-processing theory to indicate an “executive” function, strategies that involve planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. Brown in Purpura (1997).

According to explanation of metacognitive strategies, we can conclude the characteristic of metacognitive strategies, are:

a) Advance organizers: making a general but comprehensive preview of the organizing concept or principle in an anticipated learning activity.

b) Directed attention : deciding in advance to attend in general to a learning task and to ignore irrelevant distracters

c) Selective attention: deciding in advance to attend to specific aspects of language input or situational details that will cue the retention of language input.

d) Self management: understanding the conditions that help one learn and arranging for the presence of those conditions.

e) Function planning: planning for and rehearsing linguistic components necessary to carry out an upcoming language task.

f) Self monitoring: correcting one’s speech for accuracy in pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, of for appropriateness related to the setting or to the people who are present.

g) Delayed production : consciously deciding to postpone speaking in order to learn initially through listening comprehension

h) Self valuation: checking the outcomes of one’s own language learning against an internal measure of completeness and accuracy.

2.4.2 Cognitive strategies

Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself.

According to explanation of cognitive strategies, we can conclude the characteristic of cognitive strategies, are:

a) Repetition :imitating a language model, including overt practice and silrehearsal

b) Resourcing : using target language reference materials

c) Translation: using the first language as a base for understanding and/or producing the second language.

d) Grouping : reordering or reclassifying, and perhaps labeling, the material to be learned based on common attributes

e) Note taking : writing down the main idea, important points, outline, or summary of information presented orally or in writing

f) Direction: consciously applying rules to produce or understand the second language.

g) Recombination: constructing a meaningful sentence of target language sequence by combining known elements in a new way.

h) Imagery : relating new information to visual concepts in memory via familiar, easily retrievable visualizations, phrase, or longer language sequence

i) Keyword : remembering a new word in the second language by (1) identifying a familiar word in the first language the sounds like or otherwise resembles the new word and (2) generating easily recalled images of some relationship between the new word and thee familiar word

j) Contextualization : placing a word or phrase in a meaningful language sequence

k) Elaboration : relating new information to other concepts in memory

l) Transfer : using previously acquired linguistic and/or conceptual knowledge to qqqq new language learning task

m) Inferencing: using available information to guess meaning of new items, predict outcomes, or fill in missing information.

2.4.3 Socioaffective strategies

Socioaffective strategies have to do with social mediating activity and interacting with others.

According to explanation of socioaffective strategies, we can conclude the characteristic of socioaffective strategies, are:

a) Cooperation : working with one or more peers to obtain feedback, pool information, or model a language

b) Question for clarification: asking a teacher or other native speaker for repetition, paraphrasing, explanation, and/or examples.

Base of explanations above, the characteristic of socioaffective strategies is more conclude to social activity or always met people to interaction with others.

2.5 Definition of Narrative

The students are learning many texts. One of texts is narrative text. It is related to the experience or story of past time. Marahamin (1999:96) defined “Narrative is a story based on the plot, and plot consists of event, person, and conflict”.

As semi (2003:29) in Hasani (2005:22) stated that narrative is conversation or writing with the purpose tells about action or human experience based on the development of time. Keraf (1991:136) stated that “Narrative as a story tells or describes an action in the past time clearly, so narrative is tried to answer the question: what happened”. Narrative as a story, so it is should have the element that can make the story more interesting to the reader such as a conflict and conclusion of the story.

2.6 The Characteristic of Narrative

According to explanation of narrative, we can conclude the characteristic of narrative, are 1) it is a story or it is usually human experience; 2) it has a conflict and solving problem, 3) systematic. As Keraf (2000: 136) states that the characteristic of narrative are 1) concern to actions, 2) set in the time sequences, 3) try to answer the question, what happened? 4) It has conflicts. Semi in Hasani (2005:27) states that, the other characteristic of narrative, it has aesthetics; it should have imagery to increase the reader’s interest.

2.7 The Kinds of Narrative

Keraf (1991: 136) defines those kinds of narrative:

2.7.1 Expository narrative

Expository narrative is usually tells the information about the event based on factual data. It also tells about the steps of the event to the reader. The object in expository narrative is beginning the first until the end; it means that the writer tells the story from the first until the end. The purpose of narrative is to make the reader’s knowledge about object of story is deeply.

2.7.2 Suggestive narrative

Different from expository narrative, suggestive narrative can be unsuitable with the factual data, because it emphasizes the suggestive sense. So, the purpose of suggestive narrative is to increase the reader’s imagination. Hasani (2005:290) Says “narrative suggestive is narrative that tried to give a certain purpose tell an explicit message to readers or listener so they fell that they are involved in the story”.

Referring to the explanation above, the narrative is tells the story based on the human experience in the first until the end to give a certain purpose tell an explicit message to readers about object of story deeply.

2.8 The Different between Narrative and Recount

According to Pardiyono,M.Pd.(2007:63), recount is as a kind of the text that have purpose to gives the information about the activity in the past.

Pardiyono (2007:94) defines the different Narrative and Recount:

· Narrative is a kind of text about the activities that happened in the past time. It is appear about problematic experience and resolution, it purpose to amuse and sometimes it can be have to give the moral education to the reader. Narrative text is very general than short story, novel, film text, legend, tales and other that tell about the experience in the past time which is it has the conflict and resolution.

· Recount is a kind of text about the activities that happened in the past time, the main purpose is just to explain or give the information to help the reader.

Based on the explanation above, narrative is tells story about problematic human experience and resolution in the past time, but recount is tell story about the activities that happened in the past time, end the purpose just to explain or to give information to the reader.

2.9 Strategies in Composing Narrative Writing

According to Collin (2008) state that writing strategies are deliberate, focused ways of thinking about writing. A writing strategy can take many forms.

From the definition above, writing strategies are some technique it can be a formal plan a teacher wants students to follow to write a book report, or it can be something as simple as track to remember how a word is spelled.

30. A plan for writing

Preparing a writing plan for a specific text type from this they can put a plan for writing a descriptive report in the future, for example: (Department of education and early childhood development)

  1. Title of the narrative
  2. Setting of the narrative
  3. The main characters of the narrative and how they develop
  4. The main background of the narrative
  5. The events that lead up to the problem or challenge (the complication)
  6. The events that lead up to the problem/challenge being solved (the resolution)
  7. The ending (the conclusion)

Students use a range of strategies including the following:

Ø Students describe their action plan for writing, and the actions they will use to achieve their goals or purpose for writing.

Ø Students use idea generation and collation strategies, orientation strategies, and idea organization strategies, for example, brainstorming and semantic mapping (including computer and graphic organizer in planning and collecting knowledge for writing different text types) and strategies for narrative or expanding a topic prior to drafting.

Ø Students use drafting strategies in which students; 1) use the idea and perspectives generated to write a first draft; 2) elaborate initial ideas and identify subordinate ideas; and 3) focus on developing ideas, details and organizing them.

Ø Students use revising strategies such as rereading the draft to check that there is consistency of learning and main ideas, language use and style, and modify the draft accordingly.

Ø The students use editing strategies to check the use of spelling, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization; students use several resources such as a dictionary, computer and style guides.

Ø Students use publishing strategies such as; 1) selecting a format for publication appropriate for the audience for example a letter, a poster, an essay, a report); and 2) using technology to support the publishing process.

http:/www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresource/English/englishcontinum/40writingstrategy/htm.

From the above explanation, we know that by knowing the plan of writing, the students’ can be good written if their use strategies in make composing narrative writing.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 The Research Design and Method

In this research, the researcher used Descriptive Qualitative. Qualitative research is descriptive research. Borgan and Taylor (1990:3) in Margono (2005:36) defined that qualitative research is “the research procedure which produces descriptive data such as word written or speed from the population people and attitude which can analyze”. In line with that, Sugiono (2005:9) states that Qualitative research is descriptive, the data collected is in the form of words of pictures rather that number: Qualitative researches are concerned with process rather than simply outcomes or products: qualitative researches tend to analyze their data inductively.

The writer used this method to examine the events or phenomena of students, especially in students’ strategies in composing narrative writing. Sukmadianata in Sugiono (2005:60) states that qualitative research is a research that is used to describe and analyzed phenomena, event, social activity, attitude, belief, perception and people thinking either in individual or in a group.

3.2 Place of Research

The research is about the analysis of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing at second year class of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa, Tangerang. It is a formal education institution located in Cikupa kabupaten Tangerang. SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa has facilities that support students in teaching and learning process such as library

3.3 The Research Instrument

Arikunto (1997:136) stated that Research instrument is the tools or facilities used by researcher in collecting the data, hope the result of research is more accurate, complete, and systematic, so the process is easier. Based on that explanation, the writer used research instrument in collecting data to support the research.

As human instrument, the writer should make to focus of the research, choose the informant as source of the data, analyze the data and make conclusion. Moreover Licon and Guba in Sugiono (2005:60) state that the instrument of choice in naturalistic inquiry is the human. We shall see that other forms of instrumentation mat be used a tear phrases of the inquiry, but human instrument has been used extensively in earlier stages of inquiry, so that an instrument can be constructed that grounded in the data that the human instrument has product.

From the statement above, the writer concluded that in qualitative research, there is no other opinion that to use human as the main research instrument because the problem, research focus, research procedure hypotheses and event the result in qualitative research are still unclear, so that there is no choice than to use the researcher as the main instrument.

3.4 Time of Research

The research held on 15 – 29 August 2008. it consist three meeting.

3.5 The Research subject

Related to the research subject, the writer conducted her research in SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa at Second year, which consists of three class and 102 students. Then, the writer used purposive sampling in deciding the students as research subject. So, the writer took the students as research subject purposively. They are 102 students.

According to Linclon and Guba in Sugiono (2005:54) the characteristic of purposive sampling:

a) Emergent sampling design

b) Serial selection of sample unit

c) Continuous adjustment of focusing of the sample

d) Selection to the point of redundancy

3.6 The Data Collecting Technique

In collecting the data in the students’ strategies in composing narrative writing the writer used observation, interview known as triangulation and questionnaire.

3.6.1 Observation

In the instrument, the writers will observation about student’s strategies in composing narrative writing at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

In this observation the writer as an observer, just only observed and was not involved in the teaching process. Furthermore, the writer only used checklist as the instrument in the observation. Besides observing student’s activities, the writer also observed teacher’s roles, teaching aids and students’ achievement in order to know how the process of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing is and how is the result of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing.

Observation used as data collecting technique have specific type if compared by another type such as interview and questioner.(Sugiono,2005:65). As far as the writer conducted a observation in the second year at SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

3.6.2 Interview

This instrument is the way on the method of data collection in which the writer asks the information directly. The writer interviewed the English teacher and students to knowing some information from her/him how the teacher give a material narrative writing and how the students’ using strategies in composing narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa Tangerang.

3.6.3 Questionnaire

In this research, the writer was given questioner to the students’ at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa cause the writer want to know more deeply how does the students’ strategies in composing narrative writing.

3.7 The Data Analysis Technique

Muhajir (1996:104), data analysis is a process to find out and set result data from observes, interview, and other to increase the researcher about the study and make easy to understand by our self and other. In this research the writer conducted her research at second year of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa in dividing into three classes (Management I, and II) consist of 102 students. Then, to find out the data, the writer used the method by L.R. Gay and Arikunto

The writer used the following technique to measure the data:

Agreement x 100%

__________

∑ Items

(Taken from L.R. Gay, 1992:248)

The following are the standard in measuring the data:

1. Good : 76-100%

2. Enough : 51-75%

3. unsatisfactory : 40% - 55%

4. Worst : <>

(Taken from Arikunto 2002:244)

To analyses the data the writer as follow:

3.7.1 Reduction of data

Data reduction use for collecting the data from observation, interview, and questionnaire. In data reduction, the writer will summarize and focus on the important data that could eases the writer in collecting the next data.

3.7.2 Display

In data display, the writer will analyze the result from observation, interview and questionnaire. Then the data were organized and arranged in a pattern, so that they would be understood easily.

3.7.3 Conclusion drawing/ Verification

According to Miles and Huberman (1992), the third step in analyzing data in qualitative research is conclusion drawing or verification. It was used to describe all of the data which were still unclear in the beginning.

3.8 Research validity and Reliability

To determine the validity of the data, it is needed a checking technique of the data. According to Moleong (1993:173), there are four terms used:

a. Credibility

The validity concept mentions that generalization of a finding can be valid or applied on all contexts in the same population based on the finding obtained in the sample which resent the population it self.

b. Transferability

Transferability as empiric matter depends on the equity between sender and receiver contexts. To do the transferability, a researcher should find and collect empiric event of the context equality. Therefore, the researcher is responsibility for providing efficient descriptive data if she wants to make a decision about the transferability. To do this thing, a researcher needs to conduct a researcher to ensure an attempt of verifying it.

c. Dependability

Dependability term is reliability substitution term in qualitative research. The reliability is achieved if the result is equal when two or several times conducted repetition of a study in the same condition and essentially.

d. Conformability

A conformability term derives from “objectives” concept according to non qualitative research. Non qualitative states the objectivity of agreement side between subjects. To make sure that something is objective or doesn’t depend on several people’ agreement toward view, opinion, and someone’s finding. So, in this case, the objectivity of something depends on the people opinion.

Beside that, As Scriven (in Moleong, 1999:174), there is another “qualitative” element which sticks on the objectivity, it should be trust able, factual, and can be guaranteed. In other word, subjectivity means vague.

From the above explanation, if qualitative research emphasizes on “people”, whereas, non qualitative emphasize on the data. In this case, to determine the validity and reliability, with a consideration that qualitative research with its naturalistic paradigm is completely unable to use validity and reliability terms. Based on those descriptions, the naturalistic paradigm qualitative uses the term in which certainly adjusted to inquiry force, so that the redefine term is a demand that unavoidable.

Based of the techniques mentioned above, the writer used conformability of the data.

3.9 Checking Technique of Data Credibility

Lincoln et al (Moleong, 1999:175), there are eight checking techniques of data credibility suggested namely:

3.9.1 Prolong Observation

Prolong observation means that the writer should back to the field research again, then do observation and interview again to the participants in order to recheck whether the data, that were given before, are true or not. When the data, that were given, are true means that the data are credible and the prolong observation can be ended. Furthermore, by using prolong observation the relationship between the writer and the participants can form rapport.

3.9.2 Persistent Observation

Persistent observation means that the writer should do observation more accurately and continuously. By using persistent observation, the writer could give an accurate and systematic data description about the thing that is observed. In this case, the writer observed the English teacher when her/him teaching narrative writing.

3.9.3 Triangulation

Triangulation data is a checking technique of data credibility by making use of another thing which out of data to check the necessity of the data or as a comparison of the data. The most triangulation technique often used is checking trough available source.

Denzin (in Moleong, 1999:178) defines types of triangulation as checking techniques, are: 1) triangulation of source, 2) triangulation of method, 3) triangulation of investigation, and 4) triangulation of theory.

3.9.4 Colleague Checking Through Discussion

It is known as inter-rater. This technique is conducted to know whether the writer and the other experts find the same data. When the writer and the other research find the same data means that the data are credible.

3.9.5 Negative Case Analysis

Negative analysis means that the writer should search another data, which are different and even contradiction with the data that had already found. When the writer does not find the contradiction data means the data are credible.

3.9.6 Available Reference

Available reference is a device to cope and adopt with written critics for evaluation necessity. Film or video tape for example, can be used to record and compare with the result gained with the critics collected. If those mediums are not existed, other devices can be used as a comparison critic, for example information that can be used during checking of the data.

3.9.7 Checking Member

Checking with the members involved in the process of collecting data is very important to check credibility of the data. What will be checked with the members involve are data, analytic category, assumption and conclusion. The member involved who represent their colleague have function to give reaction from their view sight and situation towards the data which organized by the researcher.

3.9.8 Detail Description

Detail description technique which demands the researcher to describe the result of the research as accurate as possible which draws the research place carried out. The description should be revealed in detail to give what the readers needed so that they are able to understand the findings obtained. Auditing technique is a technique in business concept, especially in fiscal field which is used to check the dependency and credibility of the data.

As Setiyadi (2002:206) states that there are five checking technique of data credibility are, 1) Observation, 2) Interview, 3) Triangulation, 4) Documentation, and 5) Field note.

From all of the technique mentioned, researcher uses triangulation of source to display that the data is credible.

3.10 Research Procedures

The following are the procedure used in this research:

1. Determining the subject of the research.

2. Providing the instruments of data collecting such as observation form, interview guide, interview students and questionnaire guide.

3. Doing observation in the class.

4. Interview the English teacher and interview students.

5. Giving questionnaire to the students.

6. Analyzing the result of observation, interview and questionnaire by using data display.

7. Explaining the result of data descriptively by making conclusion drawing or verification.

8. Identifying the credibility of the result of the observation, interview and questionnaire by using colleague checking or inter-rate and member check technique.

CHAPTER IV

RESULT AND DISCUSSION

4.1 The Result

1. Result of observation

After observing students’ strategies in the process of composing narrative writing in the classroom, the writer measured the data, which had been collected, so that the writer gets the result that was observed. In this research, the writer observed four components in the teaching process, such as, students learning activity, teacher’s participant, teaching’s aids and students’ learning achievement. (See table 1).

To know what is of students’ strategies in composing narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa, the writer observed the students’ learning to compose narrative writing. It takes 90 minutes to observe the process of composing narrative writing. The writer got students’ strategies used to compose narrative writing.

There are four components to get the data by observing the process of composing narrative writing. The first component is activities of students. The writer got the data which has result seventy five percent it means the students’ are enough to do four activities. They are: the students listen to the teacher’s explanation about narrative writing, the students do assignment to compose narrative writing, the students make the outline before writing, and the students find difficulties in composing narrative writing. Actually one of four activities was not done, it was the students make outline before writing, example the students can not make outline before writing. While doing observation, the writer found that the activities of students, such as : 1) the students listen to the teacher’s explanation about narrative writing, the students make a group to discuss narrative writing. 2) The students do assignments to compose narrative, 3) the students make the outline before writing, and 4) the students find difficulties in composing narrative writing, the students find difficulties in composing narrative writing such as: ordering the word, stuck to get diction and etc.

The second component was teacher’s participant. The main reason why the writer observed the teacher’s participation because the teacher got the important role in helping the students to learn narrative writing, such as: the teacher gives explanation clearly to students in narrative writing so the students will understand about the material and the teacher can help the students by answering their question from the students about narrative writing.

The result for teacher’s participation was good because it reaches eighty percent, from five aspects the teacher did four activities such as: teacher gives motivation to the students, teacher explains about narrative writing, teacher answers the student’s question and the teacher solves their own problem in composing narrative writing and one activity again the teacher can not prepare learning’s aids. While doing observation, the writer found that teacher had done some roles, such as: 1) Teacher gives motivation to the students, for instance I saw the teacher gives rewards to students in learning narrative writing, 2) teacher explains about narrative writing clearly, the teacher make groups of students to discuss about narrative writing, 3) teacher prepared learning’s aids, the teacher gave works sheet, hand out or picture to helping the students in learning, 4) teacher answered the student’s question, the teacher could answer students question directly and indirectly, example the teacher answered directly students question or the teacher answer the question in the students paper, and 5) the teacher solved their own problems in composing narrative, the students found stuck to get diction, finally they found dictionary.. Unfortunately, while explaining and conveying the material, the teacher only focused on the teaching aids a book, for supporting the teaching learning process.

The third component is about students’ aids was enough. Because it reach seventy five percent, from four aspects the students used three students’ aids such as: students used a guide, students used dictionary, and students shared among their friends, one again the students did not use picture to compose narrative writing. It means that the students used the aids when they compose narrative writing. The writer found that the students aids, such as: 1) Students used a guide, the students used the hand out or work sheet in learning process. 2) Students used dictionary, students founds stuck to get diction, finally they used dictionary. 3) Students used picture to compose narrative writing, the students used picture sequence or picture card to compose narrative writing, and. 4) Students share among their friends, for example the students asked with their friend about the ordering the words into good sentences.

The fourth component or the last component is students’ learning achievement. The result of the data is good. The students’ could do the aspects about one hundred percent. The aspects are: 1) Students make their own experience orally, the students can compose narrative writing based on their experience in the last time. 2) Students are able to compose narrative writing, the students can composing narrative writing because the students use some of strategies in compose narrative writing, and 3) Students use strategies to compose narrative writing, students know some techniques in composing narrative writing, such as: make outline, use picture, use learning’s aids or sharing with friend.

The result of students’ strategies in composing narrative is the first component is seventy five percent, the second is eighty percent, the third component is seventy five percent and fourth component is one hundred percent. ( see appendix 1). So the average of table 1 is good. It can achieve eighty two percent that doing activities of the students and teacher activities during observation, and eighteen percent of the activities can not doing.

2. Result of interview

After analyzing the data, the writer interview was given to the students to know their learning strategies especially in composing narrative writing at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa.

The writer interviewed the students at second year (management) of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa. The writer got the result that most of the students always use strategies such as: 1) sharing with their friends, because some of students do not believe themselves. 2) Using outline, because their stuck idea and the result do not coherence. 3) Using dictionary, because the students lack of vocabulary. 4) Using picture, they said that it is easy to compose narrative writing and help them in writing, because the picture can remind their experience. 5) Using tools (audio, audio-visual), the students seldom used this strategy because it doesn’t work.

The writer saw the students could compose narrative writing well because some of the students used metacognitive strategies such as: making outline, using picture , using learning’s aids, using dictionary, sharing with friends and using tools(audio, audio-visual) to help them to compose narrative writing.

3. Result of questioner

After analyzing the data the writer was given questioner to the students, and it has been done in order to know the students’ activity in composing narrative writing. It consists of ten items, there are: 1). Do you like writing? 2) Do you write your experience in writing? 3). Do you determine outline before compose narrative writing? 4). Do you make outline before writing? 5) Do you use the tools to help you in writing? 6). Do you use dictionary in learning? 7) Do you always share with your friend? 8). Does the teacher give explanation clearly? 9). Do you find difficulties in composing narrative writing? 10). could you get idea in compose narrative writing?. Students can answer the questions by choosing the options yes, seldom, no and sometimes

Based on the questioner above, the result of the questioner are:

1) Do you like writing?

From ten students, there were three students who answered yes. According to those students, they like writing because they often write their past experience on their diaries. Then, there were five students who answered sometimes, because, they only compose if they get the task from the teacher. There were two students who answered no because they don’t like writing, because they stuck idea to composing narrative writing

2). Do you write your experience in writing?

From the ten students, there were seven students who answered yes, because they said it is easier to write experience their own, because writing experience is something experienced or felt by them at past. There was one student who answered sometimes because he only can memorize a little bit of his past experience. The last, there were two students who answered no because they didn’t like writing therefore they seldom write their experience.

3) Do you determine the outline before composing narrative writing?

From ten students, first, there were six students who answered yes, they said that the outline can help them in composing narrative writing. Second, there were two students, who answered sometimes, because according to them determining the outline can save the time. Third, there was one student who answered no, she said determine the outline is difficult then compose. The last, who answered seldom, because they seldom write by determine the outline.

4) Do you make outline before writing?

From ten students, there were five students who answered yes, they said making outline make them easier to composing narrative writing, and there are 2 students who answered sometimes, because based on their opinion, making outline can help them in writing. The last, there were three students who answered no, because they never make outline in composing narrative writing.

5) Do you use the tools to help you in writing?

From ten students, who answered yes there were seven students, they said by using the learning aids such as: picture, book that make them easier, because with the picture can express their idea in composing narrative writing. There were three students, who answered sometimes, because learning’s aids sometimes can help them in learning narrative writing.

6) Do you often use dictionary in learning?

From ten students, there were three students who answered yes, because they said they could find the meaning of difficulty English words, and there were five students who answered sometimes, according them dictionary doesn’t help them much. There were two students who answered seldom, because they said by opening dictionary to make confused than to share with friends.

7) Do you always share with friends?

From ten students, there were eight students who answered yes, because they said sharing with friend could give idea or share the idea if their found words difficult. There were two students who answered sometimes because they liked writing theirselves, they enjoy writing what they like to write.

8) Does the teacher’s give explanations clearly?

From ten students, there were four students who answered yes, because the teacher explanation was simple and clearly, and who answered sometimes there were five students, because the teacher voice couldn’t be listened clearly. There was one student who answered no, they said the teacher explanation make them confused and He could not understand.

9). Do you find difficulties in composing narrative writing?

From ten students, there were five students who answered yes, they said they found difficulties in ordering the words and they stuck to get the diction, then there were three students who answered sometimes, because they sometimes sharing with friends if they find difficulties in composing narrative writing, and the last who answered no there were two students, because they made outline before composing narrative writing.

10) Could you express your idea in composing narrative writing?

From ten students, there were eight students who answered yes, they said in the composing narrative writing they could express their idea in writing by memorizing the experience by looking at the picture, and who answered sometimes there were two students because they said sometimes they got stuck when they were writing narrative.

Based on the result of questioner the writer got the data, strategies that used by students in composing narrative writing are sharing with friends it is fifty percent of the student, because most of the students thought that share with friends is easier and they don’t have to open dictionary if they find difficult words, seconds, making outline. Those who use this strategy is about thirty percent of the students, making outline make them easier than using dictionary, because the students can not combine the words into good sentences. The third strategy is using learning’s aids (picture, book, audio or audio-visual), those who use this strategy was about twenty percent of the students, they said by using learning’s aids they were able to arrange their ideas.

4.2 Discussion

Based on the description above, the writer can discussion:

Strategies are specific method to help the students in learning narrative writing. Strategies can be used by the students to make them easier in composing narrative writing, because strategy is one of technique to helping the students in learning narrative writing and also express their idea. Strategies that used by the students are: sharing with friends, make outline, using dictionary, using picture, and using the learning aids (book, audio, or audio-visual).

The students’ difficulty in composing narrative writing is in ordering the words. They still confused to combine the words into good sentences. In this case, there were two causes in composing narrative writing. They were seldom composing narrative writing and practiced their English. The students seldom practice to write at home. They only practiced to write narrative writing in the class, when teacher asked them to practice. So that, they must know some strategies in composing narrative writing. Another cause is lack of facilities which support them, such as there is no a guide, therefore, they only wait for the teacher’s explanation about the material.

CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusion

After conducting the research and analyzing the data, the writer proposes the conclusion as follow:

1. There were some strategies that used by the students’ in composing narrative writing, those strategies choose by the students to facilitate them in composing narrative writing.

2. The strategies that used by the students in composing narrative writing are: sharing with friends about fifty percent, making outline about thirty percent, and using learning aids (picture, book, audio, or audio-visual) about twenty percent.

5.2 Suggestion

After having the research in SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa, the researcher would like to give some suggestions, based on observation

For the Teacher:

  • The teacher should give motivation to students in learning especially in composing narrative writing.
  • The teacher should explain clearly the material narrative writing because the students can be understood the material.

For the Students:

· The students should use effective strategies in learning English such as: sharing with friends, making outline, using dictionary, using learning aids (picture, book, audio, or audio-visual) or ordering the words in compose narrative writing.

For the school:

· As a formal education institution, school provides facilities (have a library and language laboratory) to support and increase the student’s ability especially in composing narrative writing.

REFERENCES

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Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2002. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: Rineka Putra.

Brown, H, Douglas. 2001. Teaching by Principles An Interaractive Approach to Language Pedagogy. San Francisco State University

CollinsJim.2007.WritingStrategies.http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/org/writingstrategies/index.htm.University at buffalo. The state university of new york Graduate school of education. April, 16th 2008. 09.30 Am.

Gay, L.R. 1996 Eductation Research: Competencies for Analysis and Application, New Jersey: Prentice -Hall, Inc.

Hasani, Aceng. 2005. Ihwal Menulis. UNTIRTA PRESS

Haycraf, John.1978. An Introduction to English Language Teaching, London : Longman Group Limited

Richards J. and Platt John. 1992. Logman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics. Essex: Longman.

Keraf, Gorys. 2001. Argumentasi dan Narasi. Jakarta: PT. Gramedia

Marahamin, Ismail. 1999. Menulis Secara Populer. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.

Margono. 1999. Prosedur Penelitian Kualitatif. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya

Masdari. 2005. The Correlation of using Memory Strategy on Improving students Reading Skill. Skripsi. Serang

Miles and Huberman. 1992. Analisis Data Kualitatif. Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia.

Moleong, Lexy J M.A. 2005. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitative. Bandung: PT Remaja Rosdakarya

Muhajir, Neong. 1996. Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Yogyakarta: Rake Sarasin

Pardiyono, M.Pd. 2007 Pasti Bisa! Teaching Genre-Based Writing. Yogyakarta: ANDI

Setiyadi, Bambang. 2002 Penelitian Dalam Pengajaran Bahasa Asing. Bandar Lampung: Universitas Bandar Lampung.

Sofyan, Akhmad dkk. 1999. Mari Mengangkat Martabat Bahasa kita Bahasa Indonesia (Buku Pelajaran untuk SMU kelas III). Grafindo Media Pratama

Sugiono, 2005. Memahami penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: CV. Alfabeta

http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studetlearning/teachingresouces/english/englishcontinuum/40writingstrategy/htm

APPENDICES

List of Appendices

Appendix 1 Observation

Appendix 2 Interview

Appendix 3 Questionnaire

APPENDIX I

DATA OBSERVATION

No

Komponen yang diamati

Aspek setiap komponen

Ya

Tidak

1.

Kegiatan Belajar Siswa

a. Siswa mendengarkan penjelasan guru mengenai narrative writing.

b. Siswa mengerjakan tugas membuat karangan(narrative writing).

c. Siswa membuat kerangka karangan (outline) sebelum menulis.

d. Siswa menemui kesulitan dalam membuat narrative writing.

2.

Peran Guru

a. Guru memberikan motivasi kepada siswa.

b. Guru menerangkan materi narrative writing dengan jelas.

c. Guru memberikan alat Bantu ketika memberikan materi.

d. Guru menjawab pertanyaan siswa.

e. Guru membantu mengatasi kesulitan siswa dalam membuat karangan narrative writing.

3.

Alat Bantu Belajar

a. Siswa menggunakan buku paket sebagai panduan dan pembelajaran.

b. Siswa menggunakan kamus untuk membantu menterjemahkan kata-kata yang sulit.

c. Siswa menggunakan gambar sebagai media bantu membuat karangan.

d. Siswa bertukar pikiran dengan teman sebagai masukan dalam membuat karangan (narrative writing)

4.

Pencapaian hasil Belajar Siswa

a. Siswa mampu memahami narrative writing dengan bercerita tentang pengalaman pribadi

b. Siswa mampu membuat karangan (narrative writing)

c. Siswa mengetahui taktik/cara mudah dalam membuat karangan.

Jumlah

13

3

Note:

Component 1 : 75%

Component 2: 80%

Component 3: 75%

Component 4: 100%

Average percentage: 75% + 80% + 75% + 100% = 82,5%

4

INTERVIEW GUIDE

Identity of interview : 29 August 2008

Name : Yulianti, S.Pd

Place and Date of Birth : Tangerang, 24 August 1981

Background of Education : English Teacher of SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa

Teaching Experience : 6 years

Questions:

1. How long have you been teaching? I have been teaching for 6 years

2. So far, what difficulties faced by you in teaching English subject in SMK PGRI 13 Cikupa? The students are not interested in studying English, they never bring dictionaries

3. What is your technique to increase the students’ ability in narrative writing? Make outline, let them use Indonesian language and then translate it into English.

4. Have you found the difficulties in teaching narrative writing? Yes, I have

5. What strategies used in teaching narrative writing? Make outline or give some pictures then ask them to make narrative writing based on the pictures

6. How is the student achievement in English Subject? It is not as good as I hope

7. What is the method used to increase the students’ ability interest in writing English? Always support them, give them more exercises

8.

Interview of Student

Name : Irham Maulana

Class or major : II PJ I

Date of interview : August, 25th 2008

Questions:

1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes. I like, usually I write story about my experience in the last.

2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-visual) or ordering the words? Yes, I did. I make out line and ordering the word to help me in writing the story.

3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? No, because it is can not help me in writing.

4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes, sometimes

5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Sure! My difficulties in make story is ordering the word

Interview of Student

Name : Aan Angraeni

Class or major : II PJ I

Date of interview : August, 25th 2008

Questions:

1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes. I like, usually I write story about my activity

2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-visual) or ordering the words? No, I did not

3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? Picture, because can easy to helping me writing the story

4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes

5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Yes, ! because I always difficulties in writing especially in ordering the words

Interview of Student

Name : Asep Supriadi

Class or major : II PJ I

Date of interview : August, 25th 2008

Questions:

1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? No, I don’t’ like

2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-visual) or ordering the words? Yes, I make outline before writing

3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? Picture, because make easy and helping me to writing.

4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes

5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Yes, ! because I can this to find ordering the words

Interview of Student

Name : Citra Cahya Lestari

Class or major : II PJ I

Date of interview : August, 25th 2008

Questions:

1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Yes. I like, usually I write story about my experience

2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-visual) or ordering the words? Yes, because I can writing well if I make outline before.

3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? book, because with the look of book I can write the story

4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes, I ever share with my friend

5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? No, because I ever share with my friend

Interview of Student

Name : Atika Sari

Class or major : II PJ I

Date of interview : August, 25th 2008

Questions:

1. Do you like writing (diary)? What story do you like to write? Sometimes, usually I write my experience

2. Before writing, did you make out line, using tools (audio or audio-visual) or ordering the words? Yes, I did, before write I make outline

3. What the tools (picture, book, audio or audio-visual) are uses if you want to writing? Why? I use the picture, because it can help me in writing.

4. Have you ever share with your friend? Yes

5. Do you find any difficulties in composing narrative writing? Why? Yes, ! because I difficulties in ordering the word

APPENDIX III

QUESTIONER

Nama : ............................................................

Kelas/jurusan : ..........................................................

Berilah tanda ( ) pada salah satu pilihan jawaban berdasarkan pendapat anda!

NO

Pertanyaan

Ya

Kadang-kadang

Tidak

Jarang

1.

Apakah kamu suka menulis?

2.

Apakah yang kamu tulis tentang pengalamnmu sendiri?

3.

Apakah kamu menentukan tema dulu sebelum membuat karangan?

4.

Apakah kamu membuat outline(kerangka karangan) sebelum mengarang?

5.

Apakah dengan menggunakan alat bantu dapat membantumu dalam menulis/membuat karangan?

6.

Apakah kamu sering menggunakan kamus ketika menulis?

7.

Apakah kamu sering bertukar pikiran dengan temanmu?

8.

Apakah penjelasan guru tentang narrative writing mudah di pahami?

9.

Apakah kamu menemukan kesulitan dalam menulis/membuat karangan?

10.

Apakah dengan menulis dapat menyalurkan ide atau gagasanmu?

1 komentar:

SYUK mengatakan...

salam kenal ya. saya punya problem tentang skripsi analysis saya tentang triangulation. tapi ketika lihat blog ni saya dapat solusinya. thanks